One of the hardest, but certainly the most satisfying, aspects of this disease called genealogy is trying to find the people behind the documents. All of the facts that we collect show us when someone is born, when and who they marry, whether or not they have children, have a home, work for a living, and ultimately when they die and are buried. In between the facts are the real people.
Instead of just looking at the facts, we try to figure out who the people involved in the facts really were. Most of the time this is a job for the imagination. We have to think about how we would react to a similar situation. Sometimes the documents give us a brief glimpse behind the veil to understand more about how people interacted,
Sometimes we see hints of love and devotion between friends and family members. And sometimes we see examples of conflict.
I suppose every family has some kind of conflict in it. There are those that would call the afternoon when I locked my little brother in the dog house (with a really large spider, he says) an example of family conflict. But if that’s as bad as it gets, things are pretty good.
I think that as I look at the various branches of my family, I don’t see a lot of family rifts, of branches of the family isolating themselves from other parts of the family. At least, I have not found them. But, when you keep looking, you can find things that must have been great sources of conflict within a family.
Meet Faver Cason. You have already met his brother, Jeremiah H. Cason, and heard a little bit about him. Faver and Jere were two of the sons of Jeremiah Cason (b. 19 Sep 1800, Abbeville Co., South Carolina, d. 22 Jul 1866, Simmons Bluff, Wilson County, Tennessee) and Elizabeth “Bettie” Faver (b. 29 Mar 1795, Culpepper Co., Virginia, d. 24 Mar 1867, Simmons Bluff, Wilson County, Tennessee).
Faver was Jere and Bettie’s first child, born 19 December 1826, in Limestone County, Alabama. Shortly after his birth, the family moved into Wilson County, Tennessee. Faver’s older sister, Fanny, was born in Wilson County in June 1828.
As a young man, Faver enlisted in the U.S. Army and was a part of the Mexican War. On 8 May 1846, he mustered into Co. B, 1st Tennessee Mounted Infantry of the U.S. Army and was bound for Mexico. His unit was primarily guarding wagon trains and participating in guerilla skirmishes while in Mexico. On 10 November 1846, he was accidentally shot with a shotgun by members of his own company. He received a glancing shot to the face and neck. In his pension file at the National Archives in Washington, DC, there are notes that express some doubt about whether the men in camp were screwing around when he got shot. Maybe so. In any case, later in life, he reported that parts of the shot were still in the left side of his face and that he had pain from this from time to time. At the end of May 1847, Faver mustered out of the Army in New Orleans, his term of service having expired.
Once he was out of the Army, Faver headed back to Tennessee, living in Rutherford and Wilson Counties. Faver married Mary Helen Tharp on 23 Mar 1848 in Cainsville, Wilson County, Tennessee. In 1850, we find Faver and Mary in Wilson County farming, with five slaves. In 1860, they are still in Wilson County, their economic lot having improved. Now they owned eleven slaves.
By mid-1863, the war Civil War had reached Middle Tennessee. I suppose Faver saw the writing on the wall and decided to side with who he thought would be the winners. In September 1863, Faver re-enlisted in the 5th Regiment Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry, a unit of the U.S. Army – the Yankees. He entered service as a Captain and was promoted to Major in June 1865 as he was leaving the service. The 5th Regiment was a part of action throughout Middle Tennessee. Interestingly, this unit lost 175 men to disease and 68 to the battle itself during its history.
Faver was injured again during his service. He was thrown from a horse and injured in his back and legs. He was carried to hospital and treated. He also felt like he developed an asthma-like problem while in the Army, living in the field.
What kind of internal conflict went on with Faver as he decided to re-enlist? Was he committed to the cause of the Union? Seems odd as a slaveholder, and the son and grandson of a slaveholder. Or was it loyalty to the United States that led him to enlist both the first time and the second? I am sure he heard stories from his mother’s father, John Favor, a Revolutionary War veteran who served in Virginia. Was he conflicted over this choice? Did he decide that he had to enlist to evade local raiders? I have other ancestors in Arkansas who appear to have done this. Or was it a cynical move to position himself better for the future?
How did this go over with his family? Remember Jeremiah H. Cason, his brother? Well, J. H. Cason was passionate in his own right. Not having so much property as his older brother, he was still committed to the cause of the South. He enlisted as a chaplain (being a Baptist preacher) early in the war. Shortly, he resigned and re-enlisted as a fighting soldier. He quickly rose to the rank of Captain in the 41st Alabama Infantry. And in December of 1863, while Faver was with his unit in Middle Tennessee, J.H. Cason was at the Battle of Bean’s Station in East Tennessee, where he lost his left arm.
What kind of Thanksgiving dinners went on in their family after the war? Two officers, each serving on a different side. One, suffering a serious, life-threatening injury but finding himself on the losing side. The other, a slave-holder and Southern property owner who served with the North. His wounds were superficial and possibly the result of carelessness. But, since he was on the winning side, he was receiving a pension as he aged.
After the war, Faver was able to parlay his wartime service into a seat in the Tennessee legislature as both a State Representative and a State Senator. He was a Radical Republican and reconstructionist. Certainly this caused additional conflict through the latter part of the 19th century. This is the land where Nathan Bedford Forrest established the Ku Klux Klan, after all. I wonder how he was regarded by his family, his neighbors, and his constituents.
By the 1890s, he applied for an invalid pension due to his wartime injuries and his inability to work. Several times, he applied for increases in his pension. In December 1909, a private bill (H.R. 10288) was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives to grant an increase in pension to Faver Cason; this bill was referred to the Committee on War Claims by the Committee on Invalid Pensions. One conflict, he avoided. In some of his pension depositions, he states that he waited to claim a pension from his Mexican War service because his father felt it was unseemly for him to claim a pension when he was not actually in need. Instead, he waited until his father had died to apply for his pension. He makes the case that he is in desperate need, his only asset being a small farm that he rents out since he is unable to farm it, due to his war wounds.
So, who knows what goes on in families. And who knows what’s behind all of the records that we find. As genealogists, we have to follow what the records say and what they prove for us. But, we also have to try to figure out what’s lying between the lines and the letters to tell us who these people really were. After all, they are our ancestors. We owe it to them and to ourselves to make them to be real people.
What really is an unusual source? Is a Census record unusual? Could be, I suppose, if there were something really odd about it. I suppose lots of ordinary records could be unusual.
Even a regular vital record could be unusual. My grandmother told a story, that I have never been able to validate, that some of her ancestors wanted to marry but their families were against it. So, they asked one of the field hands on the farm, a black man, to get the marriage license for them. He did, and supposedly, their marriage license is recorded in the register of black marriages in that county, even though they were about as far from black as you could imagine, solid Irish stock. That would be unusual. (I’ve never been able to find any proof of this at all. It’s one of the mysteries I would love to prove or disprove.)
But, in this case, I have some records that are a little out of the ordinary to share. Nothing too odd, just not a place I would have thought to go find out the history of my ancestors. Letters written and mailed from the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, the journals of a Baptist missionary society, and a philatelists’ compilation of steamboat timetables all help to flesh out this story (which has turned out to be longer than I expected)
Meet Bettie Cooper Cason. Bettie Cooper (more formally, Elizabeth), was born 10 Sep 1834 in Bedford County, Tennessee to Micajah T. Cooper and Sarah A. “Sallie” Vincent. You might remember meeting Micajah and Sallie previously when we saw a letter he sent to Bettie.
Bettie was the 4th of 12 children in the family. At least three of these children did not live to adulthood. It appears that Bettie was a twin to Rebecca and that Rebecca died while still a young child, before 1840. Her family was relatively well to do in their neighborhood around Bell Buckle and Wartrace in Bedford County, Tennessee. (If you visit Bell Buckle today, it’s a very cute little town and worth a visit.) In 1860, Micajah reported $8000 in real estate and $15000 in personal property for the Census.
Along the way, Bettie met a dashing young student at Union University in Murfreesboro, Tennessee name Jeremiah H. Cason. How their paths crossed, I don’t really know. He had started preaching when he was about nineteen. Perhaps they met at a camp meeting or at church or something like that. Wartrace and Murfreesboro are not far apart but are not immediately adjacent, either.
I have a nice collection of Jere Cason’s letters that he sent to Bettie while they were courting. Kathleen, my wife, tells me that had I sent her the same sort of courting letters that Jere sent Bettie, we would probably not be here today. They were sort of preachy letters and not exactly the kind of thing that would win her heart. But, I guess that they did the trick.
Jere Cason had big plans. (We’re still getting to the unusual records, I promise.) He very much felt the call to foreign missions. Bettie loved Jere and also felt the call to share her faith in the mission field.
Bettie and Jere married in early July 1856 and spent the summer traveling together and raising money for the mission. Brother Taylor, the leader of the missionary program in the Baptist Foreign Mission board, wondered why they married early in the summer rather than just before leaving, like the other missionaries. But Jere assured him that marrying earlier in the year would make it possible for the two of them to travel together to raise money, and would be able to raise more money for the mission together than Jere could alone.
On 27 August 1856, Bettie and Jere sailed from New York City for the Yoruba Country of Africa along with two other missionary couples. Their traveling companions were Robert W. and Clara Priest from Mississippi and Seldon Y. and Mary Trimble from Kentucky.
Being on a very tight budget, rather than taking a steamship or even a direct sailing ship, they traveled on a trading ship that made its way up the western coast of Africa. This added many days to their trip and made their accommodations not quite first class.
Finally on 13 January 1857, after 115 days at sea, the little band of missionaries landed at Lagos in what is today Nigeria.
Letters are not really an unusual source. Nor are diaries. But a letter, written as a diary, from a ship in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, mailed ship to ship, is a bit unusual. This is one of my favorite sources. Bettie wrote a letter to her parents while on the ship. She wrote a bit each day and made it a bit of a diary.
This is a fascinating letter. It tells about life on the ship and about her newly married life. I am sure that I will come back to this in a later post. If you are interested, let me know. I have transcriptions of this and all of the letters that I have during their stay in Africa.
One of the funniest comments in the letter is when Bettie talks about how they are faring on the ship.
This has been a delightful day. We have sailing more rapidly than usual, which we are glad of, for our voige has been slow and tedious; though it would be pleasant to us were it not for one thing; the unpleasant smell of the vessel frequently makes us sick, especially of a morning when we first get up but as this is nothing serious, I think we have no reason to complain, but rather rejoice when we look at the other sisters; they have been sea sick all the time & were you to see them you would conclude that you never had seen anyone sick stomache before. This is the thirteenth day we have been on board, and Sister Priest has thrown more or less bile off her stomach every day. My sickness before I left home has proven to be a fortunate thing for me. I have never been sick enough to miss my meals. Mr Cason thinks I look better than I did before I was married.
Another unusual source to learn about Bettie Cooper Cason is the letters of the wives of the other missionaries. At the Foreign Mission Board archives of the Southern Baptist Convention in Nashville, I found the collected correspondence of J.H. Cason and the other Africa missionaries. To my surprise, I also found a number of letters from Clara Priest, wife of R.W. Priest. In particular, one of her letters corroborated part of what Bettie said. Clara talked about the journey on the boat and about the places that they stopped to trade. While Bettie mentioned that a boat had been spotted and that they would trade mail, Clara actually recorded the date, position, and what ship they met. So, I can identify where in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Africa, the letter I have was “mailed”. Of course, however, this was very early in my genealogical career and I made a serious newbie mistake. I failed to make copies of EVERYTHING! I just spent two days tearing the house apart looking for that letter, only to finally find just my notes about the letter. Looks like it’s time to go back to Nashville again.
My unusual sources for this week are about searching in the archives of a church missions organization for information about my ancestor. Along with that, I searched the newsletters of the Baptist Foreign Mission Board. The newsletters and quarterlies printed reports from the missionaries. In the correspondence and reports submitted to the Foreign Missions Board, I found another poignant letter from J.H. Cason, Bettie’s husband, gives a window into their life in Africa. Remember how Bettie was feeling “seasick” only in the morning? In May 1857, she had a daughter. On 15 May 1857, Jere Cason writes:
On the 1st day of May we were delighted by the birth of a fine daughter. It grew and promised well to be raised. On the 12th it died and I followed it to the grave in a small band of Africans. Mrs Cason is doing pretty well and we hope she will be up in a few days.
You wished a good letter this time from me but you may not be accommodated as I am a little jaded mentally and physically from lack of sleep anxiety &c.
Ultimately, Jere and Bettie returned to Tennessee early due to her health. Reading the rest of the (unpublished) correspondence, it seems that things were very tense in the mission field and there was some disagreement about whether it was appropriate to return. But Jere felt like the best thing for his wife’s health was to return home.
Bettie apparently had always had sort of poor health. She was a twin. Her twin sister died as a young child. Losing a child after a few days was hard. She apparently had an injury falling from a horse. But, reading between the lines in some of the letters, it seems like she perhaps had no business going to Africa in the first place.
I have long wondered about their trip home. I felt sure that they landed in New York, since they took a steamship from England. But I could not find them in the passenger lists for New York, which are pretty complete. In one letter, Jere noted that they planned to sail on 4 November 1857 from Southampton in England on the Vanderbilt line and that they expected to arrive on 18 November 1857.
Looking online for 1857 steamship timetables, I found a very complete list from an unusual source. The U.S. Philatelic Classics Society published a book that details all of the known mail ships sailing during the period I was concerned with. It said that on the Vanderbilt line, the steamship Ariel sailed from Bremen, Germany to Southampton, England to New York. It left Southampton on 4 Nov 1857 and arrived on 18 Nov 1857. From that, I was able to look at the Ariel’s passenger list and found why I could never find Jere and Bettie in the index. On the passenger list, their names look much more like Cannon than Cason.
In the end, following the sources for her husband’s occupation to the Archives of the Foreign Missions Board of the Southern Baptist Convention and their publications over the years really provided a much better window into Bettie’s life than I would have had otherwise. So, keep chasing those strange leads that don’t sound like they would lead very far.
I’m sure you will hear more about Bettie in the future, but that’s enough for tonight.
It’s Week 33 and the theme is Family Legend.
Every family has at least one legend, one story that has been passed down without any sort of substantiation. Folks just take them for granted and accept them as the gospel truth.
For example, nearly every family has three brothers who immigrated to the Colonies together. One went south, one went west, and one stayed along the east coast. Almost never true. Nearly every family has an “Indian Princess” in there somewhere (we certainly do, a couple of times). There’s even less likelihood for there to be even a germ of truth or drop of native blood in that one.
But, here’s one that I actually tried to figure out whether or not it could be true.
Lida was a strong, strong woman. But she came from a strong, strong family. Her parents had gone to Africa as missionaries in 1856. Her father served as a Chaplain and then a Captain of Infantry in the Civil War. Her mother kept the family while her husband was away at war and while they moved across Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas serving churches and working to evangelize the Native Americans in west and central Texas.
Lida and Will and their children moved to southeast Oklahoma shortly after statehood, where Will worked in the newspaper business. When he died at a relatively early age, leaving young children at home, Lida picked up and did what she needed to. She taught school and continued the work at the newspaper. When her son’s wife died shortly after the birth of her first child, Lida stepped in to help raise that little boy and to travel west with her son as he pursued work. She just kept on through lots of difficult circumstances.
But what of the legend. First, you need to know that Lida’s actual given name was Eliza Johnson Cason. Where in the world did that come from? No one in the family was named Johnson, much less Eliza. In fact, this part of the family has had a long tradition of Betties. Well, in Lida’s father’s Bible, there was a notation that Lida was named for the woman who nursed her father back to health after he lost his arm in the Battle of Bean’s Station in the Civil War.
That sounds like it needs a little background. Lida Cason Higgs’ father was Rev. Jeremiah H. Cason. J.H. Cason was born in 1832 in Wilson County, Tennessee. He answered the call to preach when he was just nineteen years old. He and his wife Bettie Cooper Cason were part of the first supply of missionaries that the Baptist church sent to the Yoruba Country in Africa.
After his return, he served churches in Tennessee and Mississippi. When the Civil War broke out, he enlisted as a Chaplain. After a short time, he resigned and then reenlisted in the Infantry, quickly rising to become Captain of Co. C, 41st Alabama Infantry, a part of Gracie’s Brigade.
In December, 1863, J.H. Cason was indeed a part of the Battle of Bean’s Station in east Tennessee. And he lost his arm in this battle due to a bullet wound. His left arm was amputated above the elbow, but he survived and lived another fifty years. Jere Cason died in 1915 in Royse City, Texas.
So, if the notes in the Bible detailing how and where Jere lost his arm were right, could there be some truth to the idea that Eliza Johnson nursed Jere back to health? I am not sure how certain we can be, but here’s what I have found.
The Battle of Bean’s Station took place near the town of Bean’s Station in Grainger County, Tennessee on 14 December 1863. On a hunch, I took a look in the census for that area in 1860, as close as we can get to the date of the battle.
Sure enough, according to the Census, Larkin Johnson lives near the site of the battle and he has an unmarried 26-year-old woman, presumably his daughter, named Eliza, living in his household. Looking backward, we find the same family in place in 1850 as well.
By looking at the estate records for Grainger County, we find that Larkin died in 1865. In 1870, we find Eliza, still unmarried living in the household of a William Johnson who is a few years her junior. The 1860 Census lists a William (presumably a younger brother) in the house then, too. So it looks like Eliza is living with her younger brother and his family. Both she and he show up on the Agricultural Schedule of the 1870 census as farm owners, presumably from the (missing) distribution of their father’s property.
In 1880, we again find Eliza, still unmarried, listed as sister-in-law to John G. Brown. His wife is Elizabeth and there is an Elizabeth Johnson in the family in 1860.
What does all of this tell us? Well, it can tell us that this family really is a family. It can tell us that Eliza Johnson really lived, lived adjacent to the battlefield at the right time. Can it tell us that she served as a battlefield nurse? No. Can it tell us that she tended J.H. Cason after he was wounded? No. Can it give us circumstantial evidence that this legend could be true? Absolutely! The story talks about a person that we likely have found. And one thing I have found to be true. When Jeremiah H. Cason wrote something down or said something, it was by-golly the gospel truth. So, in true Mythbusters style, I would call this family legend proved “Probably True”.
Now, if I can only find those three brothers and where they went….
This is the first in a series of “On this day” posts. Today is 1 May 2016. And today, we are going to meet Sallie Vincent Cason, born today in 1857.
I think I have mentioned the Rev. Jeremiah H. Cason and his wife Bettie Cooper Cason before. And I am sure that I will mention them again. They are a big part of my research and of the family stories that were passed down.
Rev. J.H. Cason and his wife Bettie were very early Baptist missionaries to Africa. In September 1856, they and three other missionary couples set out for the Yoruba country, which today is a part of Nigeria. This was one of the very first groups from the Baptist church to go into Africa.
They married 3 July 1856 and spent the summer raising funds for their missionary efforts. They sailed from New York to Africa on a trading vessel, the cheapest and slowest way to get there, and arrived early in January in 1857.
That spring, Jere Cason wrote the following letter to his supervising pastor, Brother Poindexter.
Ijoye, Yoruba, May the 15th 1857
Dear Bro Poindexter
Your kind favor came to hand May 5th. It was a comforting letter and manifested much interest on your part in our mission. We were sorry to learn that Bro Taylor was unwell and hope he has long since been permitted to engage in his duties.
On the 1st day of May we were delighted by the birth of a fine daughter. It grew and
promised well to be raised. On the 12th it died and I followed it to the grave in a small band of Africans. Mrs Cason is doing pretty well and we hope she will be up in a few days.
That little girl was Sallie Vincent Cason, named for Jere’s mother. How sad. But, how matter of fact about things, too. Jere doted on his children and grandchildren. He wrote letters to each grandchild on they day it was born, welcoming that baby to the world. So, you now that he and Bettie were devastated by the death of their daughter. But, they also felt a duty to their call and their mission. I can hardly imagine.
I found this letter through the Baptist Foreign Missions Board archive in Nashville, Tennessee. They sent me copies of all of Jere’s letters. I went to visit them and made copies for myself of the letters from the other missionaries serving with them. It’s such an amazing thing for the archivist to bring a box of letters that are 160 years old, that were mailed back to the US from Yoruba, Africa.
All I can say is just “Wow.”
He never really thought it would come to this. His oldest daughter (one had died as a young child, so now she was his oldest) was leaving home. Not just leaving home, leaving her comfortable home in middle Tennessee, but really leaving! Going to Africa, maybe never to come home. And as a father, he was worried and a bit scared. So, as she left, he wrote her a letter.
Micajah Thomas Cooper was born in 1806 in Rowan County, North Carolina. His family moved to first Cannon County, then Rutherford County, Tennessee by about 1810. They settled in the Woodbury area and then moved south into Rutherford County. In 1829, Micajah married Sarah A. “Sallie” Vincent in Rutherford County. They had twelve children together and lost at least three of the twelve as children. Micajah was a fairly successful farmer. He bought land in Rutherford County, in the Bell Buckle area and grew to have a farm valued at $8000 in 1860, with personal property valued at $15000.
Micajah and Sallie’s daughter, Elizabeth “Bettie” Cooper, was born in 1834. By the fall of 1855 and spring of 1856, she had become quite attached to student at the Union College in nearby Murfreesboro, Tennessee. He was studying to be a preacher, a Baptist preacher. He wanted to share the Gospel not only to the people of middle Tennessee, but across the globe. This student, Jeremiah H. Cason, wanted to be a missionary in the foreign service. And Bettie wanted to serve with him, wherever that service would take him.
Micajah and Sallie raised Bettie to be a devout Christian, but this was never what they saw as her future! The wife of a preacher? A missionary? And Africa? What kind of dangers would she face there? Was this anywhere for a nice Tennessee girl to be?
Bettie and Jere married in July 1856 and by September that year, they boarded a sailing ship for the Yoruba County of Africa (today’s Nigeria). Not knowing whether he would ever see his daughter again, Micajah took pen to paper and wrote them a letter, hoping it would find them before they sailed. In it, he sent them on their way with his blessing, but with more than a little sadness and trepidation.
At Home Aug 10th 1856
My heart was very much gladdened on the reception of your short letter from Augusta and again by a similar one from Richmond. I hasten to write you a few lines which will have to be consise[sic] – first I would say we have tryed[sic] to submit to your departure with all the fortitude we are capable and am happy to say your mother has bore it better than I could have expected – but not a day has passed that she has not alluded to you – but I busy her up the best I can and mention the importance of your mission and the consciousness you feel – that you are discharging a duty to that God who willeth not that any should perish but that all should have eternal life. This reflection is gratifying but you know how human nature is such that it is hard for us to be willing to be separated from children who would afford us so many pleasures along the journey of life – but enough on this subject – we are all in good health and attending the Garrison Camp Meeting.
Bettie and Jere stayed in Yoruba for about a year, but that’s a story for a different day.
Micajah and Sallie died. She in 1864 and he in 1874 during a visit to a daughter in Kentucky. Both are buried right in front of the New Hope Baptist Church, in Fairfield, Bedford County, Tennessee.